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Textile knowledge: 6 kinds of elastic fibers

Update:31-03-2021
Summary:

Among the many functional varieties, elastic fiber as a […]

Among the many functional varieties, elastic fiber as a "sunrise industry" can give the human body a good sense of contact, and play an irreplaceable role in the wearing comfort, fluffy and warmth of clothing, so it is in the textile industry in China and the world. China occupies a stable position, and giving textile fabrics a certain degree of flexibility has become an inevitable development trend of clothing textiles.
1. Diene elastic fiber (rubber wire)
Diene elastic fiber is commonly known as rubber yarn or elastic yarn. The main chemical component is vulcanized polyisoprene. It has good chemical and physical properties such as high temperature resistance, acid and alkali resistance, and abrasion resistance. It is widely used in socks, rib cuffs, etc. Knitting industry. Rubber yarn is an elastic fiber used in the early days. Because it is mainly made into coarse yarns, its use in woven fabrics is very limited.
2. Polyurethane fiber (spandex)
Polyurethane elastic fiber refers to a fiber made of a block copolymer with polyurethane as the main component. It is referred to as spandex in my country. The original trade name in the United States is Spandex, and it was later renamed Lycra Lycra, Elastane in Europe, and Elastane in Japan. It is called Neolon and Dorlastan in Germany. Its elasticity comes from its molecular structure consisting of so-called "soft" and "hard" segments of the block copolymer network structure.
Spandex spinning methods include dry spinning, wet spinning, chemical reaction spinning and melt spinning. Dry spinning technology is currently the most common method of spandex industrial production. Spandex is the earliest developed and most widely used variety among elastic fibers and the most mature production technology.
3. Polyetherester elastic fiber
Polyetherester elastic fiber is an elastic fiber made by melt spinning of polyester and polyether copolymer. It was first produced by Teijin Corporation of Japan in 1990. Polyetherester elastic fiber is similar in structure to polyurethane elastic fiber, and also has the characteristic of "segment" structure. The "soft" segment is mainly polyether segment, which has good flexibility, longer chain, and easy to stretch and deform; the "hard" segment is a polyester segment, which is relatively rigid and easy to crystallize. The chain is shorter. It acts as a node when deformed by force, imparts elastic recovery performance, and determines the strength and heat resistance of the fiber.
Polyetherester elastic fiber not only has high strength, but also good elasticity, and has a high melting point. It can be blended with PET fiber and can be dyed at 120~130°C. Therefore, polyester fiber can also be processed into elastic textiles. In addition, their light resistance is excellent, chlorine bleaching resistance, acid and alkali resistance, etc. are better than ordinary spandex.
This kind of fiber also has the advantages of cheap raw materials, easy production and processing, and it is a kind of more promising fiber.
4. composite elastic fiber (T400 fiber)
CONTEX (ST 100 composite elastic fiber, collectively referred to as T400 elastic fiber in the market) is a two-component new composite elastic fiber that uses DuPont Sorona as the main raw material and is made with ordinary PET through an advanced composite spinning process; it has a natural permanent spiral Curl and excellent bulkiness, elasticity, elastic recovery rate, color fastness and particularly soft hand feeling, it can be woven alone or interwoven with cotton, viscose, polyester, nylon, etc. to form a variety of types style.
It not only solves the problems of traditional spandex yarns that are not easy to dye, excessive elasticity, complex weaving, unstable fabric size, and easy aging during use, but also can be woven directly on air jet, water jet, arrow shaft looms, and does not need to be like spandex. In that way, it must be made into covered yarn before weaving on the machine, which reduces the cost of yarn and improves the quality uniformity of the product.
5. Polyolefin elastic fiber (DOWXLA fiber)
Polyolefin elastic fiber is made of polyolefin thermoplastic elastomer by melt spinning. XLA, launched by DOW Chemical in the United States in 2002, is the first commercialized polyolefin elastic fiber. It is made by melt-spinning an ethylene-octene copolymer (POE) catalyzed by a metallocene catalyst for in-situ polymerization. .
It has good elasticity, 500% elongation at break, can withstand high temperatures of 220 ℃, resistant to chlorine bleaching and strong acid and alkali treatment, and has strong resistance to UV degradation. Its production process is relatively simple, the price of raw materials is lower than that of spandex, and at the same time, there is almost no pollution during the production process and it is easy to recycle. As polyolefin elastic fibers have a variety of excellent properties, they have become increasingly

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