Fiber has two major characteristics: one is that it is […]
Fiber has two major characteristics: one is that it is so thin that people cannot directly observe it with the naked eye, and the diameter is generally between a few microns to tens of microns or smaller; the other is that its aspect ratio is in the tens of hundreds to tens of thousands or even theoretically. The infinity is related to the type of fiber, which makes the fiber obviously show long properties in mechanics. For example, it undergoes small partial deformation during bending and twisting, and shows considerable deformation even within the elastic range during overall stretching. So simply speaking, the fiber is a kind of thin and long, that is, the diameter is too small to be directly observed by the naked eye, and the ratio of its length to the diameter is more than tens of times.
Natural fiber exists in nature and can be obtained directly. According to its source, it is divided into three categories: plant fiber, animal fiber and mineral fiber.
(1) Plant fiber
Plant fibers are fibers obtained from seeds, fruits, stems, leaves, etc. of plants, and are natural cellulose fibers. Fibers obtained from plant bast such as flax, jute, apocynum, etc.; fibers obtained from plant leaves such as sisal and abaca. The main chemical component of plant fiber is cellulose, so it is also called cellulose fiber.
Plant fibers include seed fibers, bast fibers, leaf fibers, and fruit fibers.
Seed fiber: refers to the single-cell fiber grown from the epidermal cells of some plant seeds. Such as cotton and kapok.
Bast fiber: is a single fiber or craft fiber obtained from the phloem of some plants. Such as: flax, ramie, jute, bamboo fiber.
Leaf fiber: It is a craft fiber obtained from the leaves or sheaths of some plants. Such as: sisal and abaca.
Fruit fiber: fiber obtained from the fruits of some plants. Such as: coconut fiber.
Animal fibers are fibers obtained from animal hair or insect glandular secretions. Fibers obtained from animal hair include wool, rabbit hair, camel hair, goat hair, yak wool, etc.; fibers obtained from animal gland secretions include silk and so on. The main chemical component of animal fiber is protein, so it is also called protein fiber.
Animal fibers (natural protein fibers) include: hair fibers and glandular fibers.
Hair fiber: Animal hair follicles grow fibers with a multicellular structure composed of keratin. Such as: sheep hair, cashmere, camel hair, rabbit hair, mohair.
Silk fibers: fibers secreted by some insect silk glands, especially those secreted by lepidopteran larvae, and fibers formed by secretions of some mollusks. Such as: silk.
Mineral fiber: It is a fiber obtained from a mineral rock with a fibrous structure. The main constituent materials are various oxides, such as silica, alumina, and magnesium oxide. The main source is various types of asbestos, such as chrysotile and blue Asbestos etc.
Chemical fiber is a fiber made through chemical treatment. It can be divided into man-made fibers (regenerated fibers), synthetic fibers and inorganic fibers.
Man-made fibers are also called recycled fibers.
Man-made fibers are textile fibers that are chemically processed using materials that contain natural fibers or protein fibers, such as wood, sugar cane, reed, soybean protein fibers, and other fiber materials that have lost textile processing value. The man-made fibers mainly used in textiles are: viscose fiber, acetate fiber and cupra.
Regenerated fiber refers to the fiber made after highly purified slurry made of natural high polymer, such as regenerated cellulose fiber, regenerated protein fiber, regenerated starch fiber and regenerated synthetic fiber.
The chemical composition of synthetic fiber is completely different from natural fiber. It is made from substances that do not contain cellulose or protein, such as petroleum, coal, natural gas, limestone, or agricultural and sideline products. The unit is first synthesized, and then chemical synthesis and mechanical processing are used. Into fiber. Such as polyester fiber (polyester), polyamide fiber (nylon or nylon), polyvinyl alcohol fiber (vinylon), polyacrylonitrile fiber (acrylic), polypropylene fiber (polypropylene), polyvinyl chloride fiber (chlorinated fiber), etc.
Inorganic fiber is made of natural inorganic matter or carbon-containing polymer fiber as raw material, which is made by artificial spinning or direct carbonization. Including glass fiber, metal fiber and carbon fiber.